Interleaving stand-step training with spinal cord epidural stimulation effectively improved standing in individuals with chronic complete spinal cord injury

Dr. Enrico Rejc University of Louisville

We have recently shown that approximately 80 sessions of stand training with spinal cord epidural stimulation (scES) optimized for standing promoted standing ability improvements in four individuals with chronic complete spinal cord injury (SCI). In particular, two individuals were able to stand without any external assistance, while other two individuals needed assistance for hip extension. Also, all individuals assisted balance with their upper limbs. Interestingly, 80 sessions of step training performed after stand training remarkably impaired standing in three of these four participants. These findings led us to investigate whether standing and stepping can be concurrently trained without limiting the recovery of standing in individuals with chronic complete SCI using scES. In particular, this study examined the effects of an interleaving stand-step training with scES on motor function for standing in three individuals with chronic complete SCI. Stand training and step training alternated every session, and the total number of training sessions remained the same as in the previous protocol (N=160). During this training paradigm we also were more focused on increasing the volitional involvement of the participant, and allowed longer seated rest (up to 30 minutes per session).After approximately 80 sessions of stand-step training, the ability to stand without external assistance was observed in all 3 individuals, for up to 11.4 minutes within a 60-minute standing session. After 160 sessions of stand-step training, standing time without external assistance further increased in all participants (up to 60 minutes within a 60-minute session). Throughout training, participants were also able to stand using less stable upper limb supports (from a standing frame to a walker as well as holding the hands of a trainer). Standing ability improvements were accompanied by adaptations in muscle activation pattern. For example, training promoted less variable electromyographic patterns during standing, and generally increased the evoked potentials amplitude modulation induced by the sit-to-stand transition.

In conclusion, the interleaving stand-step training with scES performed in this study promoted significant recovery of standing ability in three chronic complete SCI individuals, and seemed more effective than the previous paradigm in which stand training was completed prior to step training. This indicates that the human spinal circuitry can learn standing while also stepping, as long as standing is practiced. These findings also underline the importance of task-specificity in driving training-induced plasticity of spinal neural networks.

Authors: *E. REJC, C. ANGELI, S. HARKEMA; Univ. of Louisville, Louisville, KY
Disclosures: E. Rejc: None. C. Angeli: None. S. Harkema: None.
Grant Support
NIH (NIBIB)R01EB007615
The Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation
Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust
Kessler Foundation
Medtronic Inc
LINK: Society for Neuroscience


Nature Article

New Update on scES study: Kate WilletteSpinal cord stimulation (scES) involves planting an array of electrodes into the epidural space in the lumbar area of the cord. By way of a wireless control, those electrodes allow a researcher to send a pulse on command into the lower spine. The idea of scES isn’t to stimulate a muscle or two, but to activate whole networks of neurons that injury to the spinal cord has left without useful input.”

Posted in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Research, Neuroscience Abstracts, Rehabilitation, Spinal Research | Tagged ,

Injured adult motor and sensory axons regenerate into appropriate organotypic domains of neural progenitor grafts

Jennifer Dulin, Postdoctoral Research, UC San Diego, Neurosciences

Neural progenitor cell (NPC) transplantation has high therapeutic potential in neurological disorders. Functional restoration may depend on the formation of reciprocal connections between host and graft. While it has been reported that axons extending out of neural grafts in the brain form contacts onto phenotypically appropriate host target regions, it is not known whether adult, injured host axons regenerating into NPC grafts also form appropriate connections. We report that spinal cord NPCs grafted into the injured adult rat spinal cord self-assemble organotypic, dorsal horn-like domains. These clusters are extensively innervated by regenerating adult host sensory axons and are avoided by corticospinal axons. Moreover, host axon regeneration into grafts increases significantly after enrichment with appropriate neuronal targets. Together, these findings demonstrate that injured adult axons retain the ability to recognize appropriate targets and avoid inappropriate targets within neural progenitor grafts, suggesting that restoration of complex circuitry after SCI may be achievable.

Jennifer N. Dulin,1 Andrew F. Adler,1 Hiromi Kumamaru,1 Gunnar H. D. Poplawski,1 Corinne Lee-Kubli,1 Hans Strobl,1Daniel Gibbs,1 Ken Kadoya,1,2 James W. Fawcett,3 Paul Lu,1,4 and Mark H. Tuszynskicorresponding author1,4

Full Publication at Nature Communications

This work was supported by the Craig H. Neilsen Foundation, the US Veterans Administration Gordon Mansfield Spinal Cord Injury Consortium, the National Institutes of Health (NS042291), and the Dr. Miriam and Sheldon G. Adelson Medical Research Foundation.

Identifying appropriate neural stem cell grafts to stimulate regeneration of the corticospinal axons after injury (in an animal model) could most closely predict human benefit to this vitally important motor system. This is a collaborative endeavor between six research groups working closely together to accelerate understanding and discovery of therapies for SCI.

Bridging the injured spinal cord with neural stem cells: Jennifer N. Dulin and Paul Lu.

Posted in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Research, Regenerative Medicine, Spinal Research, Stem Cell Research | Tagged , , ,

Combined Gene Therapy and Stem Cell Transplantation for SCI

Dr. Murray Blackmore W2W 2017 Miami

Research in the Blackmore Lab

Neurons depend on long axons to communicate with target cells. Neurons in the brain and spinal cord have almost no ability to regenerate axons that are disrupted by injury or disease, resulting in a devastating and permanent loss of function. On the other hand, many other types of neurons, including peripheral neurons, neurons in lower vertebrates, and embryonic neurons, can regenerate their axons robustly. What mechanisms allow regeneration in some types of neurons but prevent it in others? The goals of my research program are to 1) identify genes that explain differences in regenerative ability between different types of neurons and 2) manipulate gene expression in neurons to promote regenerative ability. To do so we compare gene expression in regenerating versus non-regenerating neurons, and then test the activity of differentially expressed genes in culture assays of axon outgrowth. Then, using viral-mediated gene delivery in a rodent model of spinal cord injury, we test the strongest candidate genes for the ability to promote axon growth in living animals. Ultimately we aim to develop gene therapies to promote the regrowth of axons in the injured spinal cord and brain.

Posted in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Research, Gene Therapy, Regenerative Medicine, Spinal Research, Unite 2 Fight Paralysis, Working 2 Walk Science & Advocacy Symposium | Tagged | 3 Comments

Spinal cord epidural stimulation effects on urogenital and bowel outcomes

Authors: *A. N. HERRITY1,4, C. A. ANGELI1,2,4, E. REJC1,2, S. J. HARKEMA1,2,4, C. H. HUBSCHER1,3;
1Kentucky Spinal Cord Injury Res. Ctr., 2Dept. of Neurolog. Surgery, 3Dept. of Anatom. Sci. and Neurobio., Univ. of Louisville, Louisville, KY; 4Frazier Rehab Inst., Louisville, KY

Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in profound changes to sensorimotor as well as autonomic systems. Deficits in urogenital and bowel function after spinal cord injury profoundly impact quality of life and are ranked as top priority issues in the SCI population. Bladder dysfunction may manifest as a failure to store, characterized by uninhibited bladder contractions and an areflexic outlet or as a failure to empty with an areflexic bladder and a sphincter that is unable to relax. Urinary retention and an inability of the bladder to store urine under appropriately low pressures can lead to infection and ultimately impact renal health. Bowel issues such as frequent constipation can trigger blood pressure increases associated with autonomic dysreflexia. The impact of injury on sexual function includes impairments in genital responses in both male and females. While standard pharmacological therapy aims to manage the prevalent urogenital and bowel issues, therapies addressing recovery of function are still needed. Thus, the objective of this study is to describe the effects of spinal cord epidural stimulation as an alternative approach to improve bladder, bowel and sexual function after SCI. This study included AIS grade A and B subjects (n=8) receiving spinal cord epidural stimulation at L1-S1 spinal levels in combination with activity-based therapy: locomotor and/or stand training, cardiovascular and voluntary motor training by our research team. Urodynamic assessments, with and without the use of spinal cord epidural stimulation, at pre- and post-training time-points and the Spinal Cord Injury Data Set questionnaires for bladder, bowel and sexual function management accompanied each urodynamic procedure. We identified specific configurations and stimulation parameters optimal for continence and micturition in several subjects during filling cystometry. While activity-based therapies have resulted in improvements in bladder capacity and voiding efficiency, this study provides evidence that the use of spinal cord epidural stimulation can further enhance these parameters and in a frequency-dependent manner. Importantly, as capacity increased in these participants, bladder pressures continued to remain low, indicating better compliance. Several participants reported reductions in the time required for defecation post-training as well as enhanced ejaculatory ability. Spinal cord epidural stimulation, along with activity-based training, may help provide an appropriate level of excitation to the spinal cord, targeting the neural circuitry involved in urogenital and bowel function.

A.N. Herrity: None. C.A. Angeli: None. E. Rejc: None. S.J. Harkema: None. C.H. Hubscher: None.

Grant Support

LINK: Society for Neuroscience

Science News Article LINK

PLOS One Article LINK

Posted in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Research, Neuroscience Abstracts, Rehabilitation, Spinal Research

Rapid and robust recovery of breathing 1.5 years after cervical spinal cord injury

Dr. Pippa Warren

Methods to restore respiratory function following chronic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) have not been extensively studied. This represents a major gap in our current understanding as the primary cause of morbidity and mortality following cervical SCI is respiratory motor dysfunction. The loss of this activity after SCI is caused by disruption to supraspinal control of motor pathways. We have previously shown that formation of the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (CSPG) rich perineuronal net is the major impediment to sprouting and reawakening of the residual cross-phrenic pathway that can lead to restoration of respiratory motor function. Indeed, our data demonstrate that robust and rapid recovery of respiratory motor function is possible up to 1.5 years following severe cervical spinal cord hemisection injury through a combination of enzymatic degradation of perineuronal net associated proteoglycans and rehabilitative conditioning. We now provide evidence that this recovery is essentially permanent, lasting up to six months following the cessation of treatment. Our combination treatment strategy mitigates these effects through CSPG breakdown by intraspinal injection of chrondroitinase ABC (ChABC) and intermittent hypoxia (IH) training to increase respiratory drive and synaptic strength. Following conclusion of our treatment strategy, immunohistochemistry has revealed that the extracellular matrix does not reform normally, perhaps suggestive of on-going plasticity. Further, we provide evidence that our combination treatment strategy allows for re-innervation of diaphragm neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) previously denervated due to paralysis induced atrophy. In addition, we provide data describing the ventilatory response of our animals throughout treatment detailing how our recovered animals respond to environmental challenge. Collectively, these data demonstrate the significant restoration of diaphragm function and nerve activity at chronic points following cervical SCI due to matrix modification, induction of plasticity and facilitation of drive. Indeed, our results indicate that essentially complete recovery of motor function in this model of spinal cord trauma may not be limited by time after injury.

Authors: *P. M. WARREN1,2, S. C. STEIGER3, T. E. DICK4, P. M. MACFARLANE5, W. J. ALILAIN6,2, J. SILVER2;
1Sch. of Biomed. Sci., Univ. of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom; 2Dept. of Neurosciences, 3Sch. of Biomed. Sci., Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH; 4Dept. of Med., Case Western Res. Univ., Cleveland, OH; 5Pediatrics, RB&C, CWRU, Cleveland, OH; 6Anat. and Neurobio., Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY
Disclosures: P.M. Warren: None. S.C. Steiger: None. T.E. Dick: None. P.M. MacFarlane: None. W.J. Alilain: None. J. Silver: None.

Posted in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Research, Neuroscience Abstracts, Spinal Research | Tagged , | 1 Comment

Dimensions matter: Why do the spinal cords of humans and rodents respond differently to epidural electrical stimulation

1École Polytechnique Fédérale De Lausanne, Geneve, Switzerland; 2Dept. of Med., Univ. of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland; 3Fac. of Medicine, Dept. of Basic Neurosci., Univ. of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; 4Inst. des Maladies Neurodégénératives, CNRS, Bordeaux, France; 5Inst. des Maladies Neurodégénératives, Univ. of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France; 6Inst. of Lab. Animal Sciences, China Acad. of Med. Sci., Beijing, China; 7Ctr. Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland

Electrical neuromodulation of the spinal cord reversed leg paralysis in rodent and primate models of spinal cord injury (SCI), but has not mediated similar effects in people with paraplegia. Here, we combined computational modelling and experimental procedures in rodents, nonhuman primates and humans to decipher species-specific effects of epidural electrical stimulation (EES) on the production of leg movements. Computer simulations showed that EES interacts with proprioceptive feedback circuits that are naturally modulated during movement and critically contribute to motor pattern formation, both in rodents and humans. However, anatomical differences between rodents and humans dramatically alter these interactions. We found that the probability of antidromic collisions between EES-induced activity and movement-related information augments with the increase in afferent fibers length. Consequently, continuous EES disrupted the modulation of proprioceptive feedback circuits in humans, which strongly diminished the facilitation of movements with EES. We validated these results in rodents and humans with incomplete SCI. While continuous EES enabled robust locomotion in rats, the limited range of functional EES parameters prevented a similar facilitation of gait in humans. Simulations identified two stimulation strategies that effectively limited the cancellation of proprioceptive information. These strategies involved high-frequency low amplitude stimulation, and EES protocols encoding the natural proprioceptive information in the temporal and spatial structure of stimulation. We validated both strategies in nonhuman primates, whose anatomical properties are comparable to humans. While continuous EES induced co-activation of leg muscles, spatiotemporal EES enabled alternating extension and flexion movements of a paralyzed leg. These findings establish a mechanistic framework to design neuromodulation therapies that enable motor control in humans.

E. Formento: None. M. Capogrosso: None. K. Minassian: None. F.B. Wagner: None. J. Mignardot: None. C.G.M. Le Goff: None. T. Milekovic: None. E. Bezard: None. J. Bloch: E. Ownership Interest (stock, stock options, royalty, receipt of intellectual property rights/patent holder, excluding diversified mutual funds); founder and shareholder of G-Therapeutics SA. S. Micera: E. Ownership Interest (stock, stock options, royalty, receipt of intellectual property rights/patent holder, excluding diversified mutual funds); founder and shareholder of G-Therapeutics SA. G. Courtine: E. Ownership Interest (stock, stock options, royalty, receipt of intellectual property rights/patent holder, excluding diversified mutual funds); founder and shareholder of G-Therapeutics SA.

Grant Support
International Foundation for Research in Paraplegia Chair in Spinal Cord Repair
Grant Support
Bertarelli Foundation Chair in Translational Neuroengineering

LINK: Society for Neuroscience

Posted in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Research, Neuroscience Abstracts, Rehabilitation, Spinal Research

Hybrid peripheral-spinal neuromodulation therapies enable refined locomotion after paralysis by combining global and local control of leg movements

Electrical spatiotemporal neuromodulation of the lumbar spinal cord enabled controlling extension and flexion of paralyzed legs after spinal cord injury, both in animal models and humans. However, this stimulation protocol is not selective enough to modulate the distal musculature independently and efficiently, impeding a refined movement execution. Peripheral nerve stimulation selectively activates passing axons, which allowed precise control over agonist and antagonist muscles of the ankle in animal models. These results suggest that combined electrical stimulation of both spinal cord and peripheral nerves may provide a global and local control over leg movements, respectively. To evaluate this complementarity, we developed a hybrid neuroprosthetic system that targeted the spinal cord with epidural electrical stimulation and both sciatic nerves with intraneural electrodes in rat models of leg paralysis. Real-time control of peripheral nerve stimulation allowed the selective and graded tuning of distal leg movements, which was not possible with electrical spinal cord stimulation. This local stimulation enabled paralyzed rats to walk over ground and to climb a staircase. Preliminary results in humans suggested similar synergies between spatiotemporal neuromodulation of the lumbar spinal cord and peripheral nerve stimulation. These findings open promising perspectives for the development of hybrid neuroprosthetic systems to restore functional leg movements after spinal cord injury, and potentially other neurological disorders.


1Bertarelli Fndn. Chair in Translational Neuroengineering, EPFL – Campus Biotech B3.04, Geneve, Switzerland; 2EPFL Ctr. for Neuroprosthetics and Brain Mind Inst., Geneva, Switzerland; 3Med., Fribourg Univ., Fribourg, Switzerland; 4The Biorobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy; 5Pavlov Inst. of Physiol., St Petersbourg, Russian Federation
S.M. Wurth: None. J. Gandar: None. M. Capogrosso: None. A. Cutrone: None. S. Raspopovic: None. N. Pavlova: None. P. Shkorbatova: None. L. Baud: None. E. D’Anna: None. Q. Barraud: None. K. Minassian: None. F. Wagner: None. S. Micera: None. G. Courtine: None.

Grant Support
FNS grant Dynamo [315230_149902]
Grant Support
FNS grant NeuGrasp [205321_170032]
Grant Support
Grant Support
Wyss Center for Bio and Neuroengineering
Grant Support
Bertarelli Foundation

LINK: Society for Neuroscience

Posted in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Research, Neuroscience Abstracts, Rehabilitation, Spinal Research

Spatiotemporal neuromodulation of the spinal cord combined with robot-assisted training in humans with spinal cord injury (STIMO): Technological and conceptual framework

We previously showed that spatiotemporal neuromodulation of the lumbar spinal cord enables the control of flexion and extension of paralyzed legs in animal models of spinal cord injury. Gravity-assisted gait rehabilitation enabled by this neuromodulation promoted a neuroplasticity of residual descending pathways that restored supraspinal control of leg motor control after spinal cord injury. Here, we introduce the technological and conceptual framework of the clinical study STIMO. The objective of STIMO is to evaluate the immediate effects of spatiotemporal neuromodulation on leg motor control, and the long-term effects of an extensive gravity-assisted training on motor recovery in eight participants with a chronic, incomplete spinal cord injury. STIMO exploits an implantable pulse generator with real-time triggering capabilities that allows closed-loop control of epidural electrical stimulation of the lumbar spinal cord. We designed and implemented wireless control systems that linked detection of residual leg movements to adjustment of the spatial location, temporal structure and parameters of stimulation. During training, a robotic platform assists trunk movements in order to maximize gravity-dependent gait interactions during highly participative locomotion within a large and safe environment. An algorithm automatically configures multidirectional forces applied to the trunk based on patient-specific needs. This gravity-assist enables natural walking in non-ambulatory individuals. In addition, monthly evaluations are performed to assess the neuromuscular and biomechanical evolution of the trained individuals. This unified framework provides a cutting-edge environment to evaluate and train individuals with spinal cord injury and offers the tools to gain insights into the potential of this combined treatment to augment neural plasticity and functional recovery after spinal cord injury.


1Ctr. for Neuroprosthetics and Brain Mind Inst., 2Ctr. for Neuroprosthetics and Inst. of Bioengineering, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland; 3Clin. Neurosci., 4Neurosurg., 5Neuro-urology, CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland; 6Dept. of Med., Univ. of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland; 7G-Therapeutics, Lausanne, Switzerland; 8Balgrist Univ. Hosp., Zurich, Switzerland; 9Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN; 10Biorobotics Inst., Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy; 11Ctr. for Med. Physics and Biomed. Engin., Med. Univ. of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
C.G. Le Goff: None. F.B. Wagner: None. J. Mignardot: None. M. Capogrosso: None. I. Seáñez-González: None. M. Caban: A. Employment/Salary (full or part-time):; G-Therapeutics. R. Heimgartner: None. N. Fumeaux: None. F. Raschella: None. A. Watrin: A. Employment/Salary (full or part-time):; G-Therapeutics. M. Vat: A. Employment/Salary (full or part-time):; G-Therapeutics. M. Avanthay: None. I. Fodor: None. K. van den Keybus: None. G. Eberle: None. B. Schurch: None. S. Carda: None. E. Pralong: None. M. Bolliger: None. J. Von Zitzewitz: A. Employment/Salary (full or part-time):; G-Therapeutics. R. Buschman: A. Employment/Salary (full or part-time):; Medtronic. N. Buse: A. Employment/Salary (full or part-time):; Medtronic. V. Delattre: A. Employment/Salary (full or part-time):; G-Therapeutics. S. Micera: None. T. Denison: A. Employment/Salary (full or part-time):; Medtronic. H. Lambert: A. Employment/Salary (full or part-time):; G-Therapeutics. A. Curt: None. K. Minassian: None. J. Bloch: E. Ownership Interest (stock, stock options, royalty, receipt of intellectual property rights/patent holder, excluding diversified mutual funds); G-Therapeutics. G. Courtine: E. Ownership Interest (stock, stock options, royalty, receipt of intellectual property rights/patent holder, excluding diversified mutual funds); G-Therapeutics.
Grant Support
International Foundation for Research in Paraplegia (IRP)
Grant Support
Michel-Adrien Voirol Foundation
Grant Support
Firmenich Foundation
Grant Support
Pictet Group Charitable Foundation
Grant Support
Panacée Foundation
Grant Support
Canton du Valais
Grant Support
Wings for Life
Grant Support
Marie-Curie EPFL fellowship program
Grant Support
Swiss National Science Foundation including the National Center of Competence in Research (NCCR) in Robotics

LINK: Society for Neuroscience

Posted in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Research, Neuroscience Abstracts, Rehabilitation, Spinal Research

Repairing the Neural Highway by David Holmes in Nature Outline

by David Holmes

Repairing the neural highway

At present, there is no way to reverse damage to the spinal cord or to restore lost function. But regenerative therapies in the initial stages of clinical testing are offering hope.

Nature Article:

Nature pdf file:

Posted in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Research, Regenerative Medicine | Tagged

Therapeutic impact of grafted oligogenic-directly reprogrammed neural precursor cells and chondroitinase ABC for chronic spinal cord injury


1Div. of Genet. and Develop., Krembil Res. Inst., Toronto, ON, Canada; 2New World Labs., Laval, QC, Canada; 3Chem. Engin. and Applied Chem., 4Inst. of Med. Sci., Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

Introduction: Treatment of chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) is challenging due to cellular loss, cystic cavity and the inhibitory influence of the glial scar. Previous research has shown that the combinatorial therapy of neural precursor cells (NPCs) and chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), which degrades chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), promotes motor functional recovery after chronic SCI. However, the translational potential of NPCs is hindered by limited availability, immunologic complications and ethical concerns. To overcome these challenges, we have developed a novel approach to generate NPCs through direct reprogramming of somatic cells (drNPCs). We differentiate drNPCs into oligogenic cells (drNPC-pro-OPCs) and have demonstrated functional recovery after drNPC-pro-OPCs transplantation in subacute SCI. To improve cell integration in the chronic phase, a less invasive sustainable delivery system of ChABC via a methylcellulose (MC) hydrogel (MC-ChABC) was used. The purpose of this study is to determine the therapeutic potential of the combinatorial therapy of drNPC-pro-OPCs and MC-ChABC following chronic SCI.
Methods: Adult Rowett Nude rats received clip compression SCI at T7 level. At 6w after SCI, MC-ChABC, MC alone or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) were injected intrathecally. At 7w after SCI, drNPC-pro-OPCs or aCSF were injected intraspinally. The following groups were studied: 1) MC-ChABC + drNPC-pro-OPCs (n=12), 2) MC-ChABC + aCSF (n=5), 3) MC + drNPC-pro-OPCs (n=11), 4) MC + aCSF (n=5), 5) aCSF + drNPC-pro-OPCs (n=8), 6) aCSF + aCSF (control group, n=12). During the 19-week post SCI period, functional assessments including BBB, CatWalk system and von Frey test were performed.
Results: Grafted drNPC-pro-OPCs survived within the injured spinal cord and differentiated principally into oligodendrocytes at 19 weeks after SCI without tumor formation. Expression of CSPGs was successfully reduced in MC-ChABC-treated groups. Cell survival rates were higher in the drNPC-pro-OPCs and MC-ChABC combinatorial therapy group than the other groups. Motor function in the combinatorial therapy group was significantly improved as measured by BBB scores and the CatWalk system compared to the control group. Sensory function assessed by von Frey test demonstrated no significant difference among the groups.
Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that the MC-ChABC and drNPC-pro-OPCs mediated strategy induces functionally significant repair and regeneration of the chronic injured spinal cord. These findings may facilitate the clinical application of the combinatorial therapy for patients suffering from chronic SCI.

S. Nori: None. J. Ahlfors: A. Employment/Salary (full or part-time):; New World Laboratories, Fortuna Fix. M. Khazaei: None. Y. Liu: None. J. Wang: None. T. Fuehrmann: None. M.M. Pakulska: None. M. Hettiaratchi: None. P. Poon: None. M.S. Shoichet: None. M.G. Fehlings: B. Contracted Research/Research Grant (principal investigator for a drug study, collaborator or consultant and pending and current grants). If you are a PI for a drug study, report that research relationship even if those funds come to an institution.; New World Laboratories.

Grant Support
New World Laboratories

LINK: Society for Neuroscience

Posted in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Research, Neuroscience Abstracts, Regenerative Medicine, Spinal Research, Stem Cell Research | 2 Comments